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2020Wed21OctAll DaySun25Event OverFeaturedInteractive Theatre for Influencing(All Day) MurreeTheme:Quality and Accountability,COVID-19Type:TrainingRegister here

The PUKAR theater group performing at a local village after the training on Interactive Theater for Influencing in 2019.

Imam Uddin Soomro is an active member of the Pakistan Kissan Mazdoor Tehreek (PKMT), an alliance of small-scale and landless farmers including women farmers. Imam collects data on crops and conducts awareness sessions for farmers on sustainable agriculture, green revolution and globalization. As a member of a local theatre group named, PUKAR, since 2018, Imam also performs as an interactive theatre artiste in rural villages, organises learning events and writes articles on agriculture and farmers’ rights in local languages.

The PKMT was formed in 2008 as a result of a series of discussions among powerless farmers and social and political activists who felt that an organised platform to voice their demands was essential for small-scale farmers facing social and economic constraints.

“We perform plays that enable us to interact with different communities. The theatre plays address issues that are part of the PKMT struggle, including feudalism and the impact of corporate agriculture. As a theater performer, I was selected as a participant in a training tilted, Interactive Theater for Influencing, in July 2019. The training provided technical knowledge and capacity building opportunities on skills required to influence communities to bring about progress in the society. Our skills of script-writing, communications and character-building were further enhanced in the seven-day residential training.” said Imam.

All seven members of the PUKAR theater group participated in the training which gave them networking and experience- sharing opportunities with other like-minded participants. The session on ‘team building’ and ‘inhibition breaking’ helped participants self-assess themselves and understand their pivotal and influential position in society. Participants learnt about stage directions, allowing the audience to grasp every performers’ act and the message they are conveying through their role plays.

“We met with other theater groups from Peshawar, Sindh and Islamabad. All the groups had different interactive skills to perform as we all engage with different kinds of audiences. The members of other groups shared the issues they highlighted through their plays and how they passed on the resolutions,” shared Imam.

On the last day of the training, participants developed action plans to further implement the learning and skills learnt during the training.

“Initially, we would randomly select issues and base our plays on those issues. After the training, we altered our strategy. We now plan a meeting to identify the common issues that are prevalent in the communities through meetings with community members and develop a script for the play accordingly to work together to rectify the challenges people are facing. CWSA has extended support in reviewing the scripts which we plan to avail,” expressed Imam.

A group exercise that engaged the training participants in planning a theater play with other members of the group allowed collaborative learning and practical experience-sharing through coordination among the members. Imam narrated,

“When we acted with other theater performers, we learnt to show strong facial expressions as that also largely impacts the deliverance of the message and not just the dialogues. This joint exercise helped in modifying our acting and delivery gestures in order to have an even stronger impact in the communities we perform.”

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Tariq at a school theatre and recreational activity session with Afghan refugee children in December 2019.

“As a Livelihoods Officer in Secours Islamique France (SIF), I am mainly engaged in preparation, design, execution and follow-up of project delivery requirements which includes evaluations, and proposal development. I also provide professional assistance to established cooperatives and also organise technical trainings on business development, food processing, marketing, livestock management and income generating activities for underprivileged communities,” shared Tariq Khan.

Tariq has been working at SIF since 2017, a humanitarian and development organisation that works on WASH, Livelihoods, Child Welfare and awareness raising activities that support the poorest and most vulnerable populations. With over fifteen years of experience in the humanitarian aid sector, Tariq believes raising public awareness enhances community knowledge and helps in changing attitudes and behavior patterns. Tariq has participated in a number of theater plays on awareness issues performed at the community level. Tariq also encourages community members to be part of the plays itself, as he believes the plays and their messages are more effective when people see their own community members performing.

“My purpose to join the Interactive Theater for Influencing training was to improve my immersive theater abilities. Interactive action, particularly drama, successfully highlights the dynamics of conventional management principles, including conflict and negotiation, control and policy, and strategic decision-making. In addition, the seven-day intensive program offered a forum to develop leadership and communications capabilities such as empowering staff, introducing innovative communication strategies and integrating dispute resolution into the organisational practices of the organisation” said Tariq.

Community World Service Asia and partners organised a seven-day residential workshop in October, 2019, that encouraged participating organisations to incorporate issue-based content into an interactive theatre performance and introduced them to methods and techniques that would help them cater to different demographics.

During the training, conceptual clarity and difference was put forward highlighting Cathartic Theater as a play to release emotions such as pity, sadness and fear through witnessing art. The sessions also focused on how theater aids with endorsing community discussions and commitments. Participants were familiarised with the fundamentals of interactive theatre, art, and storytelling as a tool for social awareness.

“The training engaged participants in creative learning on complexities of real-life scenarios. We were involved in conversations that helped us gain different insights from peers and reflections were put on personal experiences.”

After the training, SIF, with the help of Tariq’s new learnings, organised a recreational activity for child welfare in Peshawar and Charsadah districts of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. Over a hundred children and youth members participated in the interactive theater performance that shared messages and opportunities for innovation that would help eliminate and address long-standing issues like early marriages, child protection and promoted good health, hygiene and education for all.

“As learnt in the training, we designed the content for the theater before the activity and rehearsed to perform better and efficiently,” shared Tariq, “I felt the change in communicating with the communities. I had a different kind of energy and positive attitude during the performance. I was more confident and vocal.”

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‘Theory of Change’ (ToC) has emerged as an important planning tool for development projects in the last decade. With its application not limited to technical use, it provides users guidance to analyze and develop political and management choices. Experts recommend ToC as a tool for political literacy that supports organizations with adopting a reflexive approach towards development.

The ToC facilitates organizations with effective project implementation and with mapping its change processes and its expected outcomes. It is often used in conjunction with the log frame approach as it forecasts expected processes and outcomes that can be reviewed over the time. This allows organizations to assess their contributions to change and accordingly revisit the theory of change. It also helps staff in clarifying and developing the theory as per the needs of the organization or its projects.

Community World Service Asia organized a four-day residential training on ‘Building blocks of Theory of Change’ which was participated by twenty-one humanitarian and development practitioners from eight national organizations. The training was led by Harris Khalique, who is a leading practitioner, advisor, speaker and trainer in the area of social development and human rights. He is the Secretary General of the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) and a senior fellow with Revets Learning Inc. The training was co-facilitated by Zeeshan Novel, who is also a development professional and rights campaigner with specific expertise in project management, capacity building, emergency response planning, policy research and advocacy.

Held in Murree, the training adopted an interactive methodology, based on practical exercises to achieve effective learning. The initial sessions focused on the basic concepts of ToC, why organizations need it and introducing its essential components. Participants understood the concepts of Result Chain Logic, Developing Impact, Output and Impact Statements and Situation Analysis, its causes and effects.

In a group activity, participants were sensitized about cause and effect through the problem tree exercise where they were asked to identify the problem statement and its results through the result chain concept. Through this exercise, participants learnt to identify the impact of the problems and how to overcome them. The ToC as a strategic planning tool was put forward where its implementation mechanism and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems were studied in detail.

Participants’ Learning:

“The training was very informative and relevant to our needs and expectations. The basics of ToC were thoroughly covered in the training and we, as participants, were able to learn each step to create a theory of change in detail through the participatory approach adopted by the trainers. The group activities helped us get a firm grip on the ToC as per our organizational needs. The management team was cooperative and helpful throughout the four days in Murree.

The training has enabled me to develop a beneficial and convincing ToC for Read foundation which I will construct on my return.”

Zain-ul-Abideen (Deputy Manager) Read Foundation -Islamabad

“As an M&E Manager, I am leading the M&E and program development activities of the organization.  In this regard, the training was much needed to enhance my learnings.  I was confident to develop the ToC plan for our organization when we were asked to on the last day of the training.

The training involved the participants in practical activities which made learning successful in terms of knowledge building.”

Shah Fahad, M&E Manager in Center for Electronics Research & Development (CERD)

“I aim at developing a ToC for my organization when I join back. The training has provided us with relevant guidance on developing an effective ToC to make the activities of the project productive and make change a reality.

The sessions were highly interactive for which I would like to appreciate the CWSA Team. The most interesting aspect of the training were the live discussions between the groups. In conclusion, the workshop was very conductive with excellent and well-designed presentations and discussions.”

Sadia Yousafzai, Project Coordinator in Center for Electronics Research & Development (CERD)

“The practical work and exploration of new things along with developing discussions were all really useful and effective. I believe that the ToC will benefit us by exploring organizational projects and other development initiatives. The guidelines and templates shared in the workshop were efficient and helpful in our field of work.”

Erum Baloch, Country Program Coordinator in Secours Islamique France (SIF)

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Sajida Qamar, Project Manager at Sojhla for Social Change has been working in the development sector since 2010.

With five years of experience in Sojhla, I have been working on various programs through monitoring, evaluation and managing of field activities. I am responsible for grant management and handling, along with coordination and networking with external stakeholders. The thematic areas on which our organization works are Gender & Development, Health, Education and Good Governance.

Sajida is also involved in Sojhla’s program staff recruitment processes.

I felt the need of having more knowledge on the essential tools of Human Resource Management. When I heard about the training to be held on Competency Based HR Practices, I immediately showed interest in attending the workshop.

The training, titled “Competency Based HR Practices”, organized by Community World Service Asia, was held in mid-July, 2019, with a participation of nineteen humanitarian practitioners from sixteen national and local organizations working in Pakistan. Uma Narayanan, an expert consultant on human resources, organizational development and system development and with facilitation experience of over 200 international trainings, conducted the training as a lead trainer.

Throughout the four-day training, participants were engaged in interactive sessions, learning new approaches for selection and recruitment of suitable and competent staff for their organizations.

It is vital to know the competencies of the candidates required to fill vacant positions which will eventually help in the achievement of project and organizational goals. The trainer’s extensive profile in the field of HR inspired me to participate in the training as her diverse experience of over fifty countries helped us learn international practices and standards required to retain staff and maintain work performances.

According to Sajida, the training provided sufficient information on HR standards and techniques to align HR strategy with the organizational strategy and goals. The tools and methods on adopting the Core Humanitarian Competency Framework (CHCF) were underlined and participants were made familiar with competency-based approaches to promote organizational and individual development.

One of the most interesting tools we learnt during the training was the Blended Learning Approach and Toolkit on CHCF. Such tools enable HR and relevant hiring staff to select competent candidates to fill vacant positions in the organization. Uma highlighted the effectiveness of hiring competent staff because they are a long-term asset to the organization. The CHCF applies to arranging job interviews, developing job descriptions, managing aptitudes and performing appraisals and assessments. It provides efficient guidelines to perform these functions and attain productive outcomes.

On my return from the training, I planned a session with the staff of Sojhla, including the Executive Director and the HR department, to share the new concepts and toolkits for effective HR practices.

In August 2019, Sojhla initiated a new project on community peace building, for which new staff had to be hired.

During the hiring process, I assisted the HR team in developing competency-based job descriptions for the vacant positions. Keeping the CHFC in mind, we composed relevant questions for the interviews. The questions focused on specific experience with relevance to the nature of the job. Scenario-based questions were included which aimed at assessing the capacity to handle different situations and provide new ideas for quality implementation. Moreover, we are planning to develop and conduct biannual appraisal systems which will include self-assessment as per CHCF.

However, one of the challenges we faced during the implementation of the learning was that the CHCF processes are lengthy. This makes them more effective for long-term projects but time-consuming for staff. In Sojhla, we are working on short-term projects and therefore, these lengthy processes are not fully applied and adopted within the short period of time. For this reason, I would recommend that a training is provided on implementing the CHCF in short-term processes as well to adopt maximum guidelines of the framework in our field of work.

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We were taught to carefully choose our mode of communication to effectively influence communities in a positive way and bring real change.

Reehana, Easy Approach Community Organization (EACO), Pakistan

Reehana participated in a training titled “Essentials of Social Mobilization” held in Lahore under Community World Service Asia’s Capacity Enhancement Program for local humanitarian and development practitioners in Pakistan. The training took place in August 2019 and was participated by twenty-eight staff members representing eleven civil society organizations from across Pakistan. Participants strengthened their knowledge and skills on concepts of mobilization and influencing, conflict resolution and policy development in the four-day workshop.

Employed with Easy Approach Community Organization (EACO) as a Program Manager for ten years, Reehana is actively engaged in community mobilization and management of Community-Based Organizations[1] (CBOs). She is responsible to ensure smooth implementation of projects through providing guidance and support to field staff and monitoring and reporting on the project. With over 15 years of experience in the development sector, Reehana has worked with various local and national level organizations in different capacities and found this training to be one of the most enriching personal development experiences in her career.

When I saw the contents of the ‘Essentials of Social Mobilization’ training I could not wait to attend it. The content was related to the work we are doing in EACO, therefore, I believed that the learning would be fruitful in terms of strengthening influence and bringing change in the communities we are working in,

 shared.

I have taken part in numerous trainings focused on Microfinance, Leadership Skills, Human Resource Management and Social Mobilization. But I was lucky to get a chance of attending this training workshop as the holistic approach incorporated by the CEP[2] team has been very interactive and high-yielding for me.

The two facilitators leading the training, Moazzam Ali and Nergis Ameer Khan, engaged us in developing content of the training resulting in the content being relevant to our work and nature of field activities. We also gave input in designing the pre and post training assessments to make the learning more effective and useful. The most interesting aspect of the training was identifying a need for a social mobilization policy and actually starting drafting one during the training.  EACO did not have a separate policy on social mobilization. Currently, EACO is working on the first draft of the policy and aims to take support of Community World Service Asia for review and recommendations for improvements.

After enhancing my own skills and building my own knowledge at the training, I organized a training for the fifteen field staff members of EACO. The learnings of my training with CWSA, were shared with all the participants and the team assured to implement the new techniques of mobilization in their field of work. The training provided insights on conflict resolution. Consequently, the field team arranged a community level meeting to resolve the conflict between two communities in Mohala Sadiqi Haidri Farooqabad in Sheikhupura district. There was no draining system for waste water. People in the communities were facing health issues due to the standing dirty water in the area. The conflict arose as the communities blamed each other for not constructing a proper drainage system. In the meeting, community members were mobilized to gather measurements for the pipelines to install the drainage system. The costs of installing the system were divided among the two communities and two members from each community were selected to collect the funds. The communities mutually agreed to invest jointly to build a better drainage system for both the parties to benefit from. The project of draining system was completed under EACO technical and partial financial support,

expressed Reehana.

The training allowed a systematic learning of social mobilization which consequently improved our quality of work. The communities we work in trust us more and are comfortable with our interventions. I will be happy to recommend such trainings to my colleagues and CBOs[3]as they are relevant to our work and are very useful in the humanitarian sector. These learning opportunities provide a platform to network and increase our capacities at the same time,

 concluded Reehana emphatically.


[1] Community based organizations (CBO’s) are nonprofit groups that work at a local level to improve life for residents.

[2] Capacity Enhancement Program

[3] Community Based Organizations

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National level organizations are considered agents of change as they amplify community voices through awareness raising and networking. Consequently, they play an instrumental role in education and changing public opinion and often collaborate on initiatives to ensure that social development concerns of communities at local, provincial and national level are addressed.

To achieve effective sustainable change, NGOs must have the ability to plan and facilitate efficient communication processes that mobilize efforts at both the organizational and programmatic levels. Consciousness, relationship building and networking is key to enabling positive policy change in favor of marginalized communities.

Community World Service Asia conducted a five-day training on “Influencing for positive change” in Murree. Twenty-one humanitarian and development practitioners from local organizations across Pakistan, participated in the five-day residential training in December 2019. The lead trainer of the training, Aftab Ahmed Awan, is a development professional and Human Rights and Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights expert with 15 years of experience in the field of development and Human Rights Programs Management, working with government, national and international developmental organizations. Currently he is the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Society for Sustainable Development (SSD) in Islamabad.

The agenda of the training enabled participants to understand tools and approaches for influencing and making decisions towards sustainable change. The sessions enhanced knowledge on developing strategic approaches for the policy engagement. Participants were equipped with strategic communication plans to design campaigns for social change through policy reforms on local and national level. The training sessions applied a participatory approach, that included role plays, group exercises and discussions and kept participants engaged throughout the workshop.

The session on ‘Understanding and Contextualizing Influencing’ helped participants identify relevant stakeholders, set goals and define strategies to achieve their objectives. Influencing messages were the key highlight that tailored to specific target audiences in order to frame the issue and persuade others to support the network’s position. In group assignments, participants developed key messages for their relevant target audiences. The participants were asked to keep two key elements in mind while developing the messages, namely language and content. The content refers to the central idea of the message while language consists of the words, we choose for communicating our message.

Stakeholder’s analysis is important to build a consensus to support a network’s Influencing issue. The larger the support base, the greater are the chances of success. Group activities aided in strengthening networks to build alliances. These alliances aim to work together to achieve common goals.

Participants’ Voices:

 “The training on Influencing Positive Change was a great learning experience. Aftab, our lead trainer, an energetic and motivational person kept us engaged throughout the sessions. The participatory approach allowed us to engage, interact and learn from each other’s’ experiences.” Sardar Shahzeb Hanif, Read Foundation

“The resource person, Aftab, had a good grip on the sessions he conducted. The training was very engaging and interactive. The sessions on development of effective messages, risk analysis and mitigation strategies provided knowledge and ways to involve communities in the humanitarian actions.”  Ambreen Kanwal, Strengthening Participatory Organization (SPO)

“The training was really thoughtful, and according to the needs and expectations as mentioned in the baseline and Training Needs Assessment. The activities during the training has advanced my knowledge on stakeholder analysis, behavior change communications, political analysis and monitoring and evaluation in the process of influencing for positive change.  The contents delivered during the sessions were well planned and informative.”  Dr. Muhammad Shafi, Brook Pakistan

The sessions provided ample information on policy analysis, developing effective communications skills and designing influential key messages to deliver during campaigns. The diverse group present at the training allowed experience sharing and productive networking.”  Zafar Malik. Aaghaz Foundation

“I am grateful to get this opportunity to learn and enhance my experience. The training materials were easy to understand and accessible. I am more confident now to plan a campaign for influencing and delivering positive messages for change. The sessions on power analysis, risk assessment and communication strategies have enabled me to plan campaigns on interesting topics and convey the right message. The action plans developed on the last day will help us utilize our learning and implement the tools we have learnt for effective campaigns.”  Zunaira Cheema, Youth Development Center, Punjab House

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As a component of Community World Service Asia and University of Peshawar’s collaborative interventions[1], a seven-day residential training on “Interactive Theatre for Influencing” was conducted at the University’s Baragali campus in the northern hills. Twenty-four aid workers and theatre activists from thirteen local NGOs and performing art groups participated in the training.

Participants were engaged in theoretical and practical learning exercises that aimed to improve acting skills and communication, enhance abilities, introduce stage ethics and sharpen dialogue delivery. The workshop style training also worked towards introducing and enhancing script writing techniques, issue identification and performance techniques among participants.

Practice sessions of real theatre plays were conducted as part of the training to enable the participants to link awareness raising on prominent issues with their play theme and performance.  They were sensitized on utilizing this art form to deliver messages of positive social change.  The various activities of the training provided participants with an opportunity to share experiences and ideas with each other that would help them in highlighting community issues through designing interactive theater performances in the future.

During the week-long training, participants developed action plans to ensure the implementation and application of the learning and techniques they had learnt in their respective communities. The training increased the capacity of local theatre groups to use theatre as a tool to influence communities to bring about progressive societal changes and uphold their rights. Participants also learnt theatre improvisation techniques such as effective use of body language, eye contact with the audience, balancing vocals and following a rhythm during the play to make more impact. All these skills would facilitate the theatre activists with helping rural and under-priviliged communities to overcome their collective issues and inspire positive perceptional changes,

Participants Voices

Interactive theatre for Influencing was a platform where I got the opportunity to get to know myself better and look at my capabilities from a different perspective. My confidence level boosted and as a result, I participated in the group exercises without hesitation. In addition, I was able to improve my vocal and dialogue delivery, body movement and gestures.

All participants were engaged in interactive activities through which we learnt how to engage and influence the audience in interactive theater performances. We appreciate the organization and the management team for providing learning opportunities to continuously upgrade our skills and deliver the content effectively.

Mujahid Ali, Programme Manager, Bunyad Literacy Community Council

This training played a vital role in educating me about the effective ways and tools that can be used for influencing communities. Such trainings are a source for personal development and knowledge building. We learnt different tools to bridge the knowledge gap existing in communities. The training enhanced the ability to highlight sensitive and ignorant problems prevailing in our society. I aim to utilize the theater delivery techniques shared in the training to achieve our objective of a progressive and developed society.

Tariq Khan, Livelihoods Officer, Secours Islamique France (SIF)

I had no prior knowledge of theatre before attending this training. This experience provided the history, types and the importance of theatre. The activities conducted during the sessions in the training built my confidence and allowed me to effectively influence communities and encourage change to make progressive societies.  Theater in one of the most effective ways to influence communities and encourage them towards development and change.

Misbah Naureen, Training Coordinator, Institute of Rural Management


[1] Under CWSA’s  Capacity Enhancement Project supported by Bread for the World

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Good leaders are made, not born. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never-ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience.

Jago, 1982

With over fifteen years of experience in the development sector, Muhammad Bux Kumbhar’s passion is to advocate for the rights of disadvantaged communities. As an Executive Director of a local organization named, Sukaar Welfare, Muhammad Bux works to achieve women and youth empowerment through community development and advocacy initiatives. For years Muhammad Bux has been engaged in global networking and voluntary activism initiatives with different partners on issues such as child marriages, sexual and reproductive health, nutrition, youth empowerment and gender mainstreaming. He regularly participates in social and digital awareness-building campaigns and writes proposals to implement relevant local projects.

As an active member of the District Engagement Group[1], we engage with different government departments such as Social Welfare, Women Development, Health, Education and the Police to build relationships and influence public authorities and provincial stakeholders on structures of law and policies related to women empowerment,

shared Muhammad Bux.

Finding the topic relevant to his responsibilities, Muhammad Bux registered himself for a four-day training titled, Influencing for Social Change, organized by Community World Service Asia. Impressed with the trainer’s twenty-five year national and global experience, Muhammad Bux could not contain his excitement to participate in the training.

Muhammad Bux shared that the training offered participants practical \ tools that were easily applicable in their daily work.

The training helped us understand the influence processes that can lead to achieving sustainable change. During the training, participants developed awareness-raising campaigns focused on influencing effectively through the use of different tools. We analyzed risks and sensitive features involved in designing influential campaigns,

he said.

The training enhanced the participants’ knowledge and skills on developing effective and persuasive educative campaigns that could lead to social change. Muhammad Bux was able to apply the learnings from the training to his work immediately. He said,

On my return, I modified the language of our nature of work. During our coordination campaigns, we now use new terms like ‘influencing,’ ‘networking’ and ‘liaising with stakeholders.’ I replicated part of the training and transferred the learning amongst the staff of Sukaar Welfare organization. They are already engaged voluntarily with organizational campaigns, so they understand the new term ‘influencing for social change’. I also shared my key learnings from the training to ensure more impact of the advocacy work done and to help our organization influence the communities effectively and resolve our issues with stakeholders.

Sukaar Welfare is now reevaluating and restructuring their advocacy strategies to be able to bring about more effective social change among the communities it works with.


[1] Formed under the ‘Every Voice Counts’ project, implemented by CWSA and supported by CARE International

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For a zero hunger world, people around the globe should eat healthy diets, the United Nations (UN) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has said in a booklet that is released ahead of World Food Day on October 16.

The goal of the UN-mandated Sustainable Development Goals of meeting ‘zero hunger’, according to the document, can be met by eating more seasonal fruits and vegetables and reducing the consumption of junk food. Over 820 million people — approximately one in nine people around the world — were hungry, and malnutrition affected one in every three people, the FAO noted.

To share the learning, Community World Service Asia organized a session in the village of Padmoo Bheel Union Council Khararo Charan, District Umerkot on October 16. Fifteen men and women from the community participated in the activity. The session focused on the theme which said “Our Actions Are Our Future. Healthy Diets for a #ZeroHunger World”. As a result of globalization, urbanization and income growth, our diets and eating habits have changed. The event generated awareness who suffer from hunger and increased knowledge for food security and nutritious diet intakes for all. Communities were sensitized on ensuring food security in households and how to avoid wasting food at home, marriage ceremonies and other communal gatherings.

Community Voices:

The session was very informative in terms of learning how to avoid food wastage and eat healthy food items for better health. New learning for me was food being our fundamental and basic right.

Janat from Padmoo Bheel village, Umerkot

It is important to make food as per the needs and number of people. Excess food often is wasted which is not good. The session shed light on how food is made excessively in communal gatherings and is wasted in large number. We will in the future make the food according to the need and number of people.

Ranjeet from Padmoo Bheel village, Umerkotet

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